Covid-19. Crisis, Agrarian Issues, Rural Livelihoods: An Agrarian Questions Resource

Covid-19 and economic lockdowns have led to crisis conditions in agriculture and for rural populations across the globe as supply chains are disrupted, crops are left to rot and seasonal migrant work in agriculture and beyond abruptly have disappeared. There will be winners and losers as supply chains restructure and demand stay high for certain products in some parts of the world. The effects will be felt for years to come.

 Since the onset of the crisis scholars and activists have sought to map and analyse the developments, also from rural and agrarian perspectives.

 Agrarian Questions are joining these efforts by providing this resource:  a continuously updated compilation of weblinks to studies, blog posts and webinars on how the pandemic is impacting rural and agrarian populations and regions across the world.

 

Africa (General)

African land rights in the time of the coronavirus (Webinar), May 28, 2020. PLAAS with others https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jm4T6z4DegQ

A pandemic-driven food crisis in Africa can be prevented, April 19, 2020. Cedric Habiyaremye https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/pandemic-driven-food-crisis-africa-prevented-200419164618759.html

Africa’s Huge Locust Swarms Are Growing at the Worst Time, April 16, 2020. Matt Simon https://www.wired.com/story/africas-huge-locust-swarms-are-growing-at-the-worst-time/

 

Argentina

Lockdown affecting agribusiness and local food producers differently in Argentina. Challenges and opportunities for food sovereignty, April 28, 2020. Andrea P. Sarosa Varrotti https://casasouth.org/argentina-pandemic-food-agriculture/

 

Brazil

Pandemics and the specter of hunger in Brazil: a multidimensional crisis and a negationist president, April 30, 2020.

The dangers of legalising public land theft in Brazil : agribusiness, deforestation, and the melting pot of future pandemics, April 30, 2020. GRAIN https://grain.org/e/6454

 

China

Local food systems and COVID-19: A look into China’s responses, April 08, 2020. Shulang Fei and Jia Ni http://www.fao.org/in-action/food-for-cities-programme/news/detail/en/c/1270350/

Chinese livestock farms struggle under COVID-19 restrictions, March 26, 2020. Xiaobo Zhang https://www.ifpri.org/blog/chinese-livestock-farms-struggle-under-covid-19-restrictions

Planters, plagued: Covid-19 is making it harder to grow food in China, March 14, 2020. Zhaoquanying https://www.economist.com/china/2020/03/14/covid-19-is-making-it-harder-to-grow-food-in-china

The coronavirus will delay agricultural export surges promised in trade deal with China, March 13, 2020. Wendong Zhang and Tao Xiong https://theconversation.com/the-coronavirus-will-delay-agricultural-export-surges-promised-in-trade-deal-with-china-132227

 

Colombia

Coronavirus and the Colombian Countryside, May 05, 2020. Alex Diamond https://nacla.org/news/2020/05/05/coronavirus-and-colombian-countryside-espanol

 

European Union (General)

Without rights for farm workers, EU’s food supplies are at risk, April 7, 2020. Giulia Lagana https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/rights-workers-eu-food-supplies-risk-200407070604903.html

 

Germany

[Thou shalt] Honour the asparagus!: Romanian Agricultural Labour in Germany during the COVID-19 Season, May 11, 2020. Manuela Boatca https://www.theleftberlin.com/post/thou-shalt-honour-the-asparagus

 

Global

Farmers on the Frontline: Resilience and food security in a post-coronavirus world (Web Seminar), May 28, 2020. IFAD https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYWCUsqyA54&feature=emb_title

Balancing the Pandemic, Biodiversity and Farming (Podcast), May 25, 2020. IFAD https://www.ifad.org/en/web/latest/podcast/asset/41929459

Covid-19 and agriculture: the coming contradictory hunger pandemic, May 11, 2020. Felix Anderl https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/can-europe-make-it/covid-19-and-agriculture-coming-contradictory-hunger-pandemic/

Covid-19’s Third Shock Wave: The Global Food Crisis, May 01, 2020. Michael T. Klare https://www.thenation.com/article/society/coronavirus-global-food-crisis/

‘Never Let a Good Crisis Go to Waste’:The Covid-19 Pandemic and the Opportunity for Food Sovereignty, April 2020. Walden Bello https://focusweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Covid19-Pandemic-Bello.pdf

COVID-19 and the Crisis in Food Systems (Special Report in English, Spanish and French), April 2020. iPES Food http://www.ipes-food.org/pages/covid19

Untangling famine from pandemic means untangling food from capital, April 28, 2020. Stian Rice https://booktimist.com/2020/04/28/untangling-famine-from-pandemic-means-untangling-food-from-capital/

The solution to food insecurity is food sovereignty, April 25, 2020. Jeongyeol Kim and Pramesh Pokharel https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/solution-food-insecurity-food-sovereignty-200425143803134.html

The Corporate Food System Is Making the Coronavirus Crisis Worse, April 22, 2020. Walden Bello https://fpif.org/the-corporate-food-system-is-making-the-coronavirus-crisis-worse/

COVID-19 and food insecurity: what is the role of international cooperation?, April 18, 2020. Thiago Lima, Atos Dias, Igor Palma, Igor Palma & Lucas Amorim http://www.agrariansouth.org/2020/04/18/covid-19-and-food-insecurity-what-is-the-role-of-international-cooperation/

Recipe for Disaster – Globalised food systems, inequality and COVID-19 (Webinar), April 15, 2020. Transnational Institute https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9A6WkeqPss

COVID-19 and food security in vulnerable countries, April 14, 2020. Pamela Coke Hamilton https://unctad.org/en/pages/newsdetails.aspx?OriginalVersionID=2331

COVID-19 reminds us that our food production model might kill us, March 24, 2020. Mariel Aguilar-Støen https://www.sum.uio.no/forskning/blogg/terra-nullius/covid-19-reminds-us-that-our-food-production-might-kill-us.html

COVID-19: Several members of La Via Campesina highlight the vulnerability of peasants and workers, March 18, 2020. La Via Campesina https://viacampesina.org/en/covid-19-several-members-of-la-via-campesina-highlight-the-vulnerability-of-peasants-and-workers/

 

India

MGNREGS and the Pandemic Crisis: Reflections from Tripura, May 26, 2020. Ranjini Basu and Tapas Singh Modak http://fas.org.in/blog/mgnregs-and-the-pandemic-crisis-reflections-from-tripura/

COVID-19 Lockdown: The Public Distribution of Foodgrain, May 24, 2020. Vikas Rawal and Manish Kumar https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/05/24/covid-19-lockdown-and-the-pds/

“Diarrhea, Dehydration, Hunger, Exhaustion”: India’s Rural Poor Suffer Most Under Lockdown, May 22, 2020. P. Sainath for Democracy Now https://www.democracynow.org/2020/5/22/p_sainath_rural_india_coronavirus_neoliberal

COVID-19 Lockdown: The Crisis of Rural Employment, May 20, 2020. Vikas Rawal and Manish Kumar https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/05/20/the-crisis-of-rural-employment/

COVID-19 Lockdown: Impact on Agriculture, May 20, 2020. Vikas Rawal and Manish Kumar https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/05/20/impact-on-indian-agriculture/

Choking the Lifeline of the Rural Economy: MGNREGS during the COVID-19 Lockdown, May 2020. Manish Kumar https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/05/12/mgnregs-during-the-covid-19-lockdown/

What If Migrant Workers Don’t Return? Jean Drèze Explains Crisis, May 08, 2020. https://www.thequint.com/news/india/jean-dreze-video-interview-corona-pandemic-impact-migrant-workers-livelihoods-economic-crisis

COVID-19’s Disruption of India’s Transformed Food Supply Chains, May 02, 2020. Thomas Reardon, Ashok Mishra, Chandra S R Nuthalapati, Marc F Bellemare, David Zilberman https://www.epw.in/journal/2020/18/commentary/covid-19s-disruption-indias-transformed-food.html

Environment Vs Economy: An Approach That Exposes India To COVID-19-Like Infections, May 02, 2020. Tish Sanghera, Disha Shetty https://www.indiaspend.com/environment-vs-economy-indias-flawed-logic-that-exposes-it-to-covid-19-like-infections/

Migrant Labour in the Shadow of the Pandemic (Webinar), May 02, 2020. Ravi Srivastava for Institute for Human Development and Indian Society of Labour Economics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y5MOaqN9SY

Covid-19 Pandemic: Impact on Agriculture (Web Lecture), May 02, 2020. Abhijit Sen for Society for Social and Economic Research https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTqURK2RdzE

Rural Distress, May 08, 2020. Project on Agrarian Relations in India, Foundation for Agrarian Studies https://frontline.thehindu.com/cover-story/article31404299.ece?homepage=true

Unlocking the Urban: Reimagining Migrant Lives in Cities Post- COVID 19 (Webinar), April 30, 2020. Aajeevika Bureau http://bit.ly/unlockingtheurbanpanel

COVID19 Pandemic Voices from Margins Webinar Series (Webinars), various dates. Praxis: Institute for Participatory Practices http://www.praxisindia.org/covid19.php

Covid-19: The road back home, April 29, 2020. Arthik Anusandhan Kendra, Praxis-Institute for Participatory Practices https://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/covid-19-road-back-home

The Jean Dreze Interview: Keeping migrant workers from returning home will deepen COVID-19 financial crisis, April 29, 2020. Jean Drèze and GS Vasu https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/apr/28/the-jean-dreze-interview-keeping-migrant-workers-from-returning-home-will-deepen-covid-19-financial–2136066.html

COVID-19 and women agricultural labourers: Field realities from Tamil Nadu, April 29, 2020. Pratheepa and Rengalakshmi https://tigr2ess.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/news/covid-19-and-women-agricultural-labourers-field-realities-tamil-nadu

The Coronavirus Pandemic: Addressing the Food Crisis in India (Podcast), April 2020. Centre for Policy Research https://www.cprindia.org/news/coronavirus-pandemic-addressing-food-crisis-india

Agricultural Supply Chains during the COVID-19 Lockdown, April 2020. Vikas Rawal and Ankur Verma https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/04/22/agricultural-supply-chains-during-the-covid-19-lockdown/

Farmers and Workers amidst the Pandemic (Web Lecture), April 20, 2020. R. Ramakumar for Progressive Students’ Forum-TISS https://www.facebook.com/PSFTISS/videos/232764391303696/

Bitter Harvest: Farmers suffer under the coronavirus lockdown, April 17, 2020. Ramandeep Singh Mann https://caravanmagazine.in/agriculture/farmers-suffer-under-the-coronavirus-lockdown

When the Invisible Disappeared: Migrant Labour in Agriculture in the Pandemic, April 14, 2020. R. Ramakumar   http://fas.org.in/blog/when-the-invisible-disappeared-migrant-labour-in-agriculture-in-the-pandemic/

The Covid-19 Crisis in India. Chronicle of a Tragedy Foretold, April 13, 2020. Mathieu Ferry, Govindan Venkatasubramanian, Isabelle Guérin & Marine Al Dahdah https://booksandideas.net/The-Covid-19-Crisis-in-India.html

India’s Food System in the Time of COVID-19, April 11, 2020. Abhishek, Vaibhav Bhamoriya, Puneet Gupta, Manu Kaushik, Avinash Kishore, Ritesh Kumar, Abhishek Sharma and Shilp Verma https://www.epw.in/journal/2020/15/commentary/indias-food-system-time-covid-19.html

Broken supply chains: COVID-19 lockdown is having a devastating effect on livelihoods in rural India, April 05, 2020. Ravi Nandi and S. Nedumaran https://tigr2ess.globalfood.cam.ac.uk/news/broken-supply-chains-covid-19-lockdown-having-devastating-effect-livelihoods-rural-india

Borders of an Epidemic: COVID 19 and Migrant Workers (e-book), April 2020. Ranabir Samaddar (Ed). http://www.mcrg.ac.in/RLS_Migration_2020/COVID-19.pdf

India’s Villages during the COVID-19 Pandemic. A webpage of reports compiled by Vikas Rawal, Manish Kumar and Jesim Pais; the Society for Social and Economic Research (SSER) https://coronapolicyimpact.org/2020/04/07/indias-villages-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/

The Covid­-19 Pandemic and Indian Agriculture: A Note, March 30 2020 . R. Ramakumar http://fas.org.in/blog/covid19-and-indian-agriculture/

India’s coronavirus lockdown will hit women and migrant workers hardest, March 26, 2020. Nitya Rao https://theconversation.com/indias-coronavirus-lockdown-will-hit-women-and-migrant-workers-hardest-134689

Farming and its Crisis: The troubled world of agriculture, various dates. People’s Archive of Rural India https://ruralindiaonline.org/stories/categories/farming-and-its-crisis/

 

Italy

Missing farm workers in pandemic times: Is it really “the virus’s fault”? The view from Italy, May 15, 2020. Irene Peano http://www.criticatac.ro/lefteast/missing-farm-workers-in-pandemic-times-is-it-really-the-virus-fault-the-view-from-italy%ef%bb%bf/

Italy’s coronavirus farmworker shortage fuels debate on illegal migration, April 13, 2020. Hannah Roberts https://www.politico.eu/article/italy-seasonal-migrant-farm-workers-coronavirus-covid-19/

 

Latin America (General)

Nuevo informe de la FAO advierte del impacto del COVID-19 en la seguridad alimentaria de América Latina y el Caribe, April 27, 2020. FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean http://www.fao.org/americas/noticias/ver/en/c/1272991/

 

Jordan

Herding in a confined spring: Pastoralists in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic, May 15, 2020. Mathilde Gingembre and Anas Amarneh https://pastres.org/2020/05/15/herding-in-confined-spring-pastoralists-in-jordan-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/

 

Mexico

Resisting in the mountains in Mexico: using territory and self-determination to resist COVID-19, May 05, 2020.

 

Mozambique

The four immediate impacts of Covid-19 regulations on the Mozambican farmers, April 17, 2020. Phillan Zamchiya, Clemente Ntauazi and Boaventura Monjane https://www.plaas.org.za/the-four-immediate-impacts-of-covid-19-regulations-on-the-mozambican-farmers/

 

Netherlands

Where Have 140 Million Dutch Tulips Gone? Crushed by the Coronavirus, April 12, 2020. Nina Siegal https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/12/world/europe/netherlands-tulips-coronavirus.html

 

Pakistan

Roots of Food Crisis in Pakistan, May 14, 2020. Hashim Bin Rashid and Mohsin Abdali https://pakleftreview.com/2020/05/14/the-roots-of-the-food-crisis-in-pakistan-covid-lockdown-the-failing-food-system-and-a-path-to-food-sovereignty/

Restraining COVID-19 impact on agriculture in Pakistan, May 03, 2020. Ghulam Abbas Shah https://pakobserver.net/restraining-covid-19-impact-on-agriculture-in-pakistan/

How will COVID-19 affect Pakistan farmers, food system?, May 01, 2020. Sana Jamal https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/pakistan/how-will-covid-19-affect-pakistan-farmers-food-system-1.71196910

 

Peru

Agro y coronavirus: Las medidas del gobierno para el mundo rural en tiempos de pandemia, May 2020. La revista agraria https://larevistagraria.files.wordpress.com/2020/05/lra-189-web-compressed.pdf

Agro y coronavirus, May 05, 2020. Fernando Eguren https://landportal.org/es/blog-post/2020/04/agro-y-coronavirus

 

South Africa

Democratising South Africa’s food system in and beyond the crisis (Webinar), May 21, 2020. PLAAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_DjDw5PsBso

Covid-19’s effect on South African farm workers (Webinar), May 07, 2020. PLAAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQYZfwyiY_k

Covid-19: Impact on small-scale fisheries in South Africa and beyond (Webinar), April 30, 2020. PLAAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyK_pMPcl8A

Covid-19: What’s happening in our informal economy? (Webinar), April 21, 2020. PLAAS https://www.plaas.org.za/plaas-webinar-covid-19-whats-happening-in-our-informal-economy/

Covid-19: A perspective from rural South Africa (Webinar), April 16, 2020. PLAAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqUtUq800Uw

Covid-19: The impact on small-scale fishers—A perspective from Ocean View, April 07, 2020. Charles America, Joseph Ginindza and Moenieba Isaacs https://www.plaas.org.za/covid-19-the-impact-on-small-scale-fishers-a-perspective-from-ocean-view/

Food in the time of the coronavirus: Why we should be very, very afraid, April 1, 2020. PLAAS https://www.plaas.org.za/food-in-the-time-of-the-coronavirus-why-we-should-be-very-very-afraid/

 

South Asia

COVID-19 and South Asia: Journeying with Migrant Labour (Web Seminar), May 27, 2020. Warwick Interdisciplinary Research Centre for International Development https://bit.ly/3gET6Nl

 

United Kingdom

Food Inequality, Covid-19 and the Community Restaurant, May 23, 2020. Benjamin Selwyn https://socialistproject.ca/2020/05/food-inequality-covid19-community-restaurant/#more

 

USA

The Food Supply Chain Is Not Yet in Danger — but the Workers Who Keep Us Fed Are, April 24, 2020. Murtaza Hussain https://theintercept.com/2020/04/24/coronavirus-food-supply-chain/

COVID-19 sweeping through US immigrant farmworker and meatpacker ranks, April 23, 2020. Danica Jorden https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/democraciaabierta/covid-19-sweeping-through-us-immigrant-farmworker-and-meatpacker-ranks/

‘If one of us gets sick, we all get sick’: the food workers on the coronavirus front line, April 17, 2020. Mya Frazier https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/17/chicken-factory-tyson-arkansas-food-workers-coronavirus

How coronavirus threatens the seasonal farmworkers at the heart of the American food supply, April 03, 2020. Michael Haedicke  https://theconversation.com/how-coronavirus-threatens-the-seasonal-farmworkers-at-the-heart-of-the-american-food-supply-135252

Coronavirus Hits Already Frail U.S. Farm Economy, March 21, 2020. Jacob Bunge, Kirk Maltais and Jesse Newman https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-hits-already-frail-u-s-farm-economy-11584783001

 

Zimbabwe

COVID-19 and the Peasantry: Some Reflections from Zimbabwe, April 15, 2020. Edmore Mwandiringana and Fadzai Chipato https://peasantscorners.org/2020/04/15/covid-19-and-the-peasantry-some-reflections-from-zimbabwe/

Zimbabwe’s Covid-19 lockdown: Ensuring the right to food for the poor, April 14, 2020. Phillan Zamchiya, Dewa Mavhinga, Thando Gwinji, Arnold Chamunogwa and Claris Madhuku https://www.plaas.org.za/zimbabwes-covid-19-lockdown-ensuring-the-right-to-food-for-the-poor/

 

Some resources on wider political economy issues:

Bottlenecks, Choke Points, and Supply Chains (Webinar), May 23, 2020. Red May TV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWuitn4GpD4

La vida después dela covid-19, June-July 2020. http://revistas.ibero.mx/ibero/

The End of Emerging Markets?, May 03, 2020. James Crabtree https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/03/emerging-markets-coronavirus-pandemic-economic-fallout/

COVID-19 and Circuits of Capital, May 01, 2020. Rob Wallace, Alex Liebman, Luis Fernando Chaves and Rodrick Wallace https://monthlyreview.org/2020/05/01/covid-19-and-circuits-of-capital/

COVID-19 en América Latina: El futuro es hoy, April 30, 2020. Rodrigo Yáñez, RIMISP https://webnueva.rimisp.org/noticia/covid-19-en-america-latina-el-futuro-es-hoy/

Measuring the impact of COVID-19 with a view to reactivation, April 2020. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean https://www.cepal.org/en/publications/45477-measuring-impact-covid-19-view-reactivation

A crisis like no other: social reproduction and the regeneration of capitalist life during the COVID-19 pandemic, April 20, 2020. Alessandra Mezzadri https://developingeconomics.org/2020/04/20/a-crisis-like-no-other-social-reproduction-and-the-regeneration-of-capitalist-life-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/

The Pandemic and the Global Economy, April 20, 2020. Jayati Ghosh https://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/the-pandemic-and-the-global-economy

Covid-19 and economic development in Latin America, April 16, 2020. Tobias Franz https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/latamcaribbean/2020/04/16/covid-19-and-economic-development-in-latin-america/

Latin America’s left spots comeback opportunity in coronavirus fallout, April 15, 2020. Michael Stott and Jude Webber https://www.ft.com/content/9559b05e-ed82-40af-9870-5a296d37704e

Could Pandemic Lead to Famine?, April 15, 2020. Martin Ravallion https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/covid19-lockdowns-threaten-famine-in-poor-countries-by-martin-ravallion-2020-04?referral=f10b8c

Rethinking Social Reproduction in the Time of Covid-19, April 15, 2020. Kavita Dattani https://antipodeonline.org/2020/04/15/rethinking-social-reproduction-in-the-time-of-covid-19/

How “Just-in-Time” Capitalism Spread COVID-19: Trade Routes, Transmission and International Solidarity, April 08, 2020. Kim Moody https://spectrejournal.com/how-just-in-time-capitalism-spread-covid-19/#sdendnote1anc

Out of the Ruins and Rubble: Covid-19 and the fightback in Africa, April 07, 2020. Heike Becker, Femi Aborisade and Issa Shivji https://roape.net/2020/04/07/out-of-the-ruins-and-rubble-covid-19-and-the-fightback-in-africa/

Pulverized: Capitalism, Africa and Covid-19, March 31, 2020. Leo Zeilig and Hannah Cross https://roape.net/2020/03/31/pulverized-capitalism-africa-and-the-covid-19-crisis/

This is a Global Pandemic – Let’s Treat it as Such, March 27, 2020. Adam Hanieh https://www.versobooks.com/blogs/4623-this-is-a-global-pandemic-let-s-treat-it-as-such

 

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